COT drives resistance to RAF inhibition through MAP kinase pathway reactivation

No citation available. Published: 2010.12.15

Cory M. Johannessen, Jesse S. Boehm, So Young Kim, Sapana R. Thomas, Leslie Wardwell, Laura A. Johnson, Caroline M. Emery, Nicolas Stransky, Alexandria P. Cogdill, Jordi Barretina, Giordano Caponigro, Haley Hieronymus, Ryan R. Murray, Kourosh Salehi-Ashtiani, David E. Hill, Marc Vidal, Jean J. Zhao, Xiaoping Yang, Ozan Alkan, Sungjoon Kim, Jennifer L. Harris, Christopher J. Wilson, Vic E. Myer, Peter M. Finan, David E. Root, Thomas M. Roberts, Todd Golub, Keith T. Flaherty, Reinhard Dummer, Barbara Weber, William R. Sellers, Robert Schlege, Jennifer A. Wargo, William C. Hahn, Levi A. Garraway

Abstract

Oncogenic mutations in the serine/threonine kinase B-RAF are found in 50-70% of malignant melanomas1. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that the B-RAFV600E mutation predicts a dependency on the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in melanoma1-5???an observation that has been validated by the success of RAF and MEK inhibitors in clinical trials6-8. However, clinical responses to targeted anticancer therapeutics are frequently confounded by de novo or acquired resistance9-11. Identification of resistance mechanisms in a manner that elucidates alternative ???druggable??? targets may inform effective longterm treatment strategies12. Here, we expressed ~600 kinase and kinase-related open reading frames (ORFs) in parallel to functionally interrogate resistance to a selective RAF kinase inhibitor. We identified MAP3K8 (COT/TPL2) as a MAPK pathway agonist that drives resistance to RAF inhibition in B-RAFV600E cell lines. COT activates ERK primarily through MEK-dependent mechanisms that do not require RAF signaling. Moreover, COT expression is associated with de novo resistance in B-RAFV600E cultured cell lines and acquired resistance in melanoma cells and tissue obtained from relapsing patients following treatment with MEK or RAF inhibition. We further identify combinatorial MAPK pathway inhibition or targeting of COT kinase activity as possible therapeutic strategies for reducing MAPK pathway activation in this setting. Together, these results provide new insights into resistance mechanisms involving the MAPK pathway and articulate an integrative approach through which high-throughput functional screens may inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

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Supplemental Data

Description Link/Filename
DNA copy-number (segfile) of chromosome 10 in cell lines (CCLE) CCLE_Chrom10_MAP3K8_segfile.seg.txt
DNA copy-number of MAP3K8/COT in cell lines (CCLE) CCLE_MAP3K8_copy-number.txt
mRNA expression level of MAP3K8/COT in cell lines (CCLE) CCLE_MAP3K8_expressionAffy.txt